List of the Advantages of Plastics. Easier to use for those with visual or fine motor skills impairments. The product of the coating process is a dry formulation. Future Market Insights’ recent research report titled “Advantages Of Polymers In Construction Market: Global Industry Analysis (2012-2016) and Opportunity Assessment (2017-2026)” offers a comprehensive analysis on the global Advantages Of Polymers In Constructions market by covering all valuable aspects associated with the production, application and sales of these materials. Niosomes are formed from self-assembly of the non-ionic amphiphiles in the aqueous media out coming in the closed bilayer structures (Fig. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. (2008).These include: safety and non-toxicity, free flowability,poor solubility in the loaded mixture solution and good water solubility for easy hydration (Abd-Elbary et al.,2008). Improved treatment of chronic illness where symptoms break through occurs when the plasma level of the drug falls below the MEC. For developing successful formulations, controlled drug release and following biodegradation are important and potential release mechanism involves: The mode of delivery can be the differentiation between a drug’s success and failure, as the choice of a drug is often affected by the way the medicine is administered. polymer blend advantage prosthesis polymers. Raja Naresh et al /i>(15) prepared thermosensitive niosomes by evaporation of organic solvent at 60Â°C and a thin film of lipid was left on the wall of rotary flash evaporator resulting from the process of evaporation. Niosomal drug delivery is potentially applicable to many of the pharmacological agents for their action against various diseases. Most optical-grade polymers have great transmission â comparable to crown glass â so the overall transmission of the hybrid is comparable to that of glass optics. Slow spray-coating method: This method includes the formulation of proniosomes by spraying surfactant in the organic solvent onto sorbitol powder and then evaporating the solvent. Less injection pain 71. Advantages: More convenient and easier to transport than traditional vial and syringe. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION EASE OF FABRICATION It is easier to adjust the chemical composition of polymers The synthesis of polymers is less cumbersome an much easier than metals. Among them are: DNA , starch , silk and cellulose . Polymer additives are chemicals added to the base polymer to improve processability, reduce raw material costs, prolong the life span, and/or achieve the desired physical or chemical properties in the final product. What are Polymers? The major advantages of Niosomes as drug carriers includes: Based on the method used for the production and composition of bilayer, niosomes show a wide variation in their properties. Water-cooled reflux and thermometer is positioned in the first and second neck and nitrogen supply through the third neck. Many plastics have a long lifespan that encourages reuse. Where entrapment efficiency (EF) = (Amount entrapped total amount) x 100. The bioactive material is dissolved in the aqueous phase/organic phase. Biodegradable polymers break due to cleavage of covalent bonds between them and bio erodible polymers bring about erosion of the polymer due to desorption of surface-bound /adsorbed drugs; diffusion (in the case of nanocapsules) through the carrier wall; Reduction in the number and frequency of doses required to maintain the desired therapeutic response. The released action of niosomes is applicable to the drugs with low therapeutic index and having low water solubility since these conditions for the drug can be maintained in the circulation through the encapsulation of niosome. The word POLYMER comes from the Greek words poly means many and mer means parts . Freeze thawing (keeping vesicles suspension at -20Â°C for 24 hrs and then heating to ambient temperature) of niosomes increases the vesicle diameter. Most optical-grade polymers have great transmission – comparable to crown glass – so the overall transmission of … The dry niosomes disperses or dissolves to form a suspension of multilamellar niosomes. Copolymers present advantages not usually seen in homopolymers. The carriers can be caused to be slowly degradable, stimuli-reactive for e.g. As new polymers went into the development process, the plastics advantages and disadvantages required constant review to avoid detrimental environmental impacts. The vesicles were stored in glass vials at room temperature or kept in refrigerator (4oC) for 3 months. One advantage of cellulose ethers such as NaCMC and HPC is lesser dependency of adhesion time and adhesion force of them to pH of medium in compared with polyacrylate and thiolated bioadhesive polymers (Grabovac et al., 2005). The niosomes were diluted with bidistilled water to give total lipid concentration of 0.312 mM.After rapid mixing by sonication for 5 min; the turbidity was measured as the absorbance with an ultraviolet-visible diode array spectrophotometer. ii) Chemical resistance, impact resistance, and abrasion resistance. When in need of a custom-machined component for a project, choosing a metallic material may be the instinctive consideration to the design engineer. There is a swift progress in the NDDS, so as to overpower the restrictions of conventional drug delivery. The high rates of elimination of such drugs from the body need an extremely large maintenance dose which provides 8 – 12 hrs of continuous therapy. Improved patient compliance. Looking for a flexible role? The polymer helps to enhance the extra property of mortar and attain its highest performance. Improved patient compliance. Cholesterol and surfactant are dispersed together in this buffer (pH 7.4) at 70Â°C. Reduce the total amount of drug administered over the period of drug treatment. Polymer are widely used in structural components in automobiles due to some advantages they offer, which are not found in other material. As a result the niosomes formed have greater uniformity, small size and better reproducibility. iii) Increased permeability and reduced absorption. A disease in which the parasite enters and causes harm to cells of liver and spleen is Leishmaniasis. To achieve a targeted drug release. Can be done in small labs whereas metals require large workshops to huge industries FLEXIBLE ADVANTAGES OF Do watch our videos "Polymers Part 1 … Free resources to assist you with your university studies! The antimonials at high concentration will affect and damage heart, liver and kidney. On the other hand, the very slow advancement in the efficiency of the treatment of austere diseases has suggested a growing reqirement for a multidisciplinaâ¦ These structures are able to encapsulate the aqueous solutes. Hence protecting the drug from biological environment and restricting effects to target cells. what are considered to be advantages of synthetic polymers. Find methods information, sources, references or conduct a … We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. The diameter of the vesicle range from 50 to 1000 nm. ADVANTAGES OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS â¢ Localized delivery of drug â¢ Sustained delivery of drug â¢ Stabilization of drug â¢ Decrease in dosing frequency â¢ Reduce side effects â¢ Improved patient compliance â¢ Controllable degradation rate 25. An aqueous phase containing drug is added to this. The current review article focuses on polymers in pharmaceutical drug delivery of therapeutic agents. Reduced rate of rise of drug concentration in blood. Pharmaceutical polymers are widely used to achieve taste masking; controlled release (e.g. A strategy that could allow active targeting requires the surface fictionalization of drug carriers along with ligands that are selectively acknowledged by receptors on the surface of the cells of interest. Colloidal drug carrier systems such as micellar solutions, vesicle and liquid crystal dispersions as well as the nanoparticle dispersions consisting of small particles of 10-400 nm diameter are very promising drug delivery systems (fig 1). ble polymers offer a safe passage for drug delivery due to their well engineered molecular architecture according to the transitions in the underlying mechanisms of the biological process. Polymer materials handle â¦ Such localized drug accumulation has nevertheless been exploited in the treatment of animal tumors known to metastasize to the liver, spleen and in parasitic infestation of liver. These macromolecules are present in virtually everything that surrounds us. Phone: 23-456-789 Fax: 098-765-432 123, New Lenox Chicago, IL 60606 This results to a thin film on the wall of the round bottom flask. In this method organic solvents are not used. This procedure is followed by sonication. There is a swift progress in the NDDS, so as to overpower the restrictions of conventional drug delivery. 1. of Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Then the aqueous phase (0.1% glycerol solution) is added and warmed on a water bath till a clear solution was formed which then gets converted into proniosomal gel when it is cooled (Vora et al.,1998 and Gupta et al., 2007). A method of in-vitro release rate study includes the use of dialysis tubing. Polymers and the enviroment Using polymers as feedstock for cracking Disadvantages one disadvantage of burning polymers for the production of energy is that if incomplete combustion takes place a toxic gas is released called carbon monoxide which decreses the amount of oxygen can. ble polymers offer a safe passage for drug delivery due to their well engineered molecular architecture according to the transitions in the underlying mechanisms of the biological process. The retention of entrapped drug was measured 72 hours after preparation. A growth in penetration rate has been accomplished by the transdermal delivery of drug included as a part in niosomes. Advantages of NDDS Decreased dosing frequency. The polymer used can be both liquid type as well as the solid fine dusted form. Systemic and local side effects are successfully reduced due to the reduction in the total amount of the drug. Corrosion resistant 4. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. The delivery of drug through niosomes is one of the approaches to accomplish the localized drug action, since the size and low penetrability of the niosomes through the epithelium and connective tissue keeps the drug confined at the area of administration. In a clean and dry wide mouthed glass vial of 5.0 ml capacity exactly weighed amounts of surfactant, lipid and drug are taken and alcohol (0.5 ml) is added to it. The vesicle suspension is water-based and it offers high patient compliance in comparison with the oily dosage forms. The growth of the polymer industry in the latter half of the 20th century has been phenomenal and shows no signs of decreasing.If the advantages of synthetic polymers over competing materials such as metals and ceramics are considered, it is reasonable to predict that polymers will take an even greater share of the total materials market in the future. Drug targeting is a phenomenon in which the distribution of drug in the body is in such a manner that the major part of the drug interacts solely with the target tissue at a cellular or sub cellular level. Subject: Novel Drug Delivery Systems Course: Pharmaceutical Sciences According to this principle the two fluidized streams interact at ultra high velocities, in micro channels which are very precisely defined and this interaction takes place within the interaction chamber. The required characteristics of the selected carrier that could be used in the preparation of proniosomes were formally speeched by Payne et al. Many plastics have a long lifespan that encourages reuse. Advantages: i) Improved workability, strength, and adhesion. Use of polymer is increasing day by day due to the following reasons: Design freedom: it is very easy to mold polymers in any shape and form like injection molding and blow molding at a very low cost. Some drugs can be can be toxic or produce no therapeutic benefit at all if there concentration is above or below this range. Cholesterol and surfactant in the ratio 1:1 are dissolved in a mixture of ether and chloroform. This method is initiated by the addition of hypertonic salt solution to the suspension of niosomes. Increased efficiency of the drug and Site specific delivery. There are many additive options available and each one offers a specific improvement to the polymer’s functionality or stability. The resulting two phases are sonicated at 4-5Â°C. Surfactant and cholesterol are dissolved in chloroform. The commonly prescribed drugs are antimonials, which have relation with arsenic. On the other hand, the very slow advancement in the efficiency of the treatment of austere diseases has suggested a growing reqirement for a multidisciplinary approach to the delivery of therapeutics to the targets in the tissues. It is again measured after 1, 2 or 3 months in same formulations. Polymers have a low density, they can be used in electrical insulation and they have low thermal conductivity, but they also swell with water, require low Advantages and disadvantages of polymers and plastics can be summarized like above. Niosomes can act as a carrier for hemoglobin. Then this suspension is vortexed. 1.4 Advantages of Polymer Material for Mass Production Now-a-days there is a very little gap between use of metals and polymers. The basic objective of sustained drug release is to achieve more effective therapies by eliminating potential for both under and overdosing. Prezi. disadvantages to the use of poly ethene. â¢ The polymer under heating it can convert one stare to anther state and after cooling it can again convert its original state. Advantages and Disadvantages of Plastics The growth of the polymer industry in the latter half of the 20th century has been phenomenal and shows no signs of decreasing. Targeting the drug molecule towards the tissue or organ leads to the reduction of the toxicity to the normal tissues and improved patient compliance. As shown in table 1. Explore the latest full-text research PDFs, articles, conference papers, preprints and more on NDDS. Liposomes are the form of vesicles that are contained of many, few or just one phospholipids bilayers. The suspension of niosomes points a visible spectrum super imposable to the free hemoglobin. Reference this. Subject: Novel Drug Delivery Systems Course: Pharmaceutical Sciences extended, pulsatile and 1). Encouragingly, these barriers that impede the efficacy of anti-PD therapy can be potentially addressed by nanosized drug delivery systems (NDDS) [37,38].NDDS can reduce the âon target but off tumorâ effect of anti-PD drugs by delivering them specifically into tumors, taking advantages of their passive or active targeting capability after proper modification and engineering Amphiphilic and lipophilic molecules are solubilised in the scope of the phospholipids bilayer in accordance to their affinity towards the phospholipids. Two major mechanisms can be made prominent for addressing the desired sites for drug release: An example of passive targeting is the preferential accumulation of chemotherapeutic agents in the solid tumours as an outcome of the intensified vascular permeability of tumour tissues in comparison with the healthy tissue. This mixture is later heated at 60Â°C for 10 minutes to result to give niosomes. what are the advantages of polymers answers com. Paul Ehrlich in 1906 began the era of development for targeted delivery when he pictured in mind a drug delivery mechanism that would target drugs directly to diseased cells. Magnetically controlled TDDS shows high specificity to superficially located organs and tissues but cannot be targeted to deep seated organs. Reduced side effects. resultant suspension is placed in the series of up to 8 passages. The surfactant, cholesterol and dicetyl phosphate are mixed in chloroform and made into a thin film by the evaporating this mixture. After warming, all the ingredients are mixed well with a glass rod. March 25, 2019. This effect is dose dependent. The organic phase is removed at 40Â°C under low pressure. And then it is heated on a water bath at 60Â°C for 10 min so as to yield niosomes. biological means to increase their biocompatibility. increase thinking in novelty in design and development of NDDS. POLYMERS for CDDS--class slides (1).pdf - Polymers Introduction classification properties advantages and application of polymers in the formulation of. But for elastomers, this property can be an advantage for come applications. Niosomes on hairless mouse are the various formulations based on the topical delivery of erythromycin. Explore the latest full-text research PDFs, articles, conference papers, preprints and more on COORDINATION POLYMERS. The different methods used for preparation of niosome are listed as follows: In this method, the niosomes are slowly introduced in a solution of surfactant dissolved in diethyl ether into warm water maintained at 60Â°C. Drugs incorporated in liposomes are not activated under physiological conditions and do not cause unfavourable side effects as well. Lower health care costs both short & long term. Future Market Insights’ recent research report titled “Advantages Of Polymers In Construction Market: Global Industry Analysis (2012-2016) and Opportunity Assessment (2017-2026)” offers a comprehensive analysis on the global Advantages Of Polymers In Constructions market by covering all valuable aspects associated with the production, application and sales of these materials. Then the open end of the glass bottle is covered with a lid to prevent the loss of solvent from it and then it is warmed over water bath at 60-70Â°C for about 5 min until the surfactant mixture is dissolved completely. There are various advantages of conducting polymers over metals, which is why metals are being constantly replaced by conducting polymers: 1. The anthracyclic antibiotic named doxorubicin has broad spectrum anti tumor activity.This antibiotic shows an irreversible cardio toxic effect. The dispersion is mixed for 15 seconds with high shear homogenizer. Sustained and consistent blood level within the therapeutic window. Osmotic shrinkage of vesicles can be determined by monitoring reductions in vesicle diameter. The pH of the sample is then raised to 7.0-7.2 with 1M disodium phosphate. 17th May 2018 The ideal drug delivery system delivers drug at a rate commanded by the requirement of the body over the period of treatment and it channels the active entity solely to the area of action. Advantages of hybrid optics In glass-polymer hybrids, a fairly thin layer of aspherized optical polymer is added to a conventional spherical glass lens. Aqueous drug polycarbonate membranes,Ã¯â¬Â solution is used to hydrate the film and the extrusion product i.e. Changing vesicle composition, size, lamellarity, tapped volume, surface charge and concentration can control the vesicle characteristics. Microspheres of particle size more than 50Âµg can lead to problem of thromboÂembolism in general circulation. * âSmartâ polymer : polymer can response to external stimulation such as temperature, electricity and light. During the last 40 years, more and more researchers began to concentrate themselves on polymer modification of bitumen and a rapidly increasing number of research articles have been published since 1970s. antibodies to the polymer surface has led to, ‘polymer therapeutics’ for targeting to organs and, Bulk properties that need to be considered for, solubility based on the release mechanism, Bioadhesiveness need to be taken into account, when DDSs are targeted to mucosal tissues, Whereas polymers for ocular devices have to be, aqueous or lipid-soluble in addition to having good, film forming ability and mechanical stability for good, micromorophology and pore size are important, with respect to mass transport (of water) into, For nonbiodegradable matrices, drug release, in most cases is diffusion-controlled and, peptide drugs with low permeability can only, be released through the pores and channels, For biodegradable polymers, it is essential to, Dept. Polymer modified mortars is formed by mixing the organic polymers as admixture during the preparation of mortar which remains finely dispersed in solid form or emulsified form. An assembly in which the hydrophobicÂ parts of the molecule are shielded from the aqueous solvent is the result. it can be made pH- or temperature-sensitive and even targeted for e.g., by conjugating them with specific antibodies against certain characteristic components of the area of interest. Learn to find the Molecular Mass of polymers with examples. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. Niosomes prepared from pure surfactant are osmotically more sensitive in comparison to vesicles containing cholesterol. Protections from the first pass metabolism, gastro intestinal tract degradation and maximizing availability with minimum dose. 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