Numerous sand boils were seen in the region northwest of Spitak including within 15 meters (49 ft) of the failed embankment. While foreign doctors did assist with the Chernobyl incident, the Soviet relief effort after the earthquake was augmented by the largest foreign cooperation since World War II. A major earthquake devastated the Armenian Republic of the Soviet Union on December 7, 1988, resulting in thousands of deaths and injuries. Also, the 1988 Spitak earthquake occurred in a region where three major faults meet in a triple junction, and where diffuse seismic activity attests to the complexity of the tectonic setting. Wikipedia. Three locations between Spitak and Nalband (to the west) that were within several kilometers of the fault were examined for ground disturbances and each site was scrutinized for the effects of liquefaction. Prague, 17 March 1998 (RFE/RL) -- Nearly ten years ago, on December 7, 1988, a massive earthquake rocked northwestern Armenia, killing some 50,000 inhabitants. [14] It was reopened in 1995 amid criticism of lack of training, political instability in the Caucasus region, and accusations that the plant was of inadequate design. Chrysler chairman Lee Iacocca arranged for a fund drive, and in Chicago (one of five major Armenian population centers in the US) the community raised $800,000 and donated 20,000 pounds of supplies. A second site that was close to the fault, also near the Pambak river and with similar soil deposits, did not experience liquefaction, though it would have experienced the same high peak ground accelerations as the failed highway embankment. Leninakan as a result of the earthquake of 7 December 1988. the earthquake in Armenia, 1988* H.K. Though the recurrence of seismic events in Armenia does not reach the high frequency that is seen in other segments of this zone, rapid crustal deformation there is associated with activethrust faulting and volcanic activity. Leninakan earthquake in the Armenian region of Spitak 1988 by DiFilm. It had to do with the 8.2 earthquake that struck Armenia back in 1989 when the country was flattened, killing over 30,000 people in less than four minutes. What follows is a passage from his memoirs pertaining to that day. Baxter International, an American health care company with headquarters in Deerfield, Illinois, designed and built a flying medical lab set up with 20 dialysis machines to be used with victims suffering from crush syndrome, but were unable to get started for four days until the visas were available. Numerous sand boils were seen in the region northwest of Spitak including within 15 m (49 ft) of the failed embankment. A monument, Armenian Earthquake, expressing the appreciation of the Armenian people for assistance from the U.S. was erected in Washington D.C. in 1990. The unrest and the opposition movement began in September 1988 with negotiations between the Karabakh Committee and Gorbachev taking place throughout most of 1989. Author and professor of geopolitics Pierre Verluise detailed in his 1995 book Armenia in Crisis: The 1988 Earthquake, how a French doctor and director of a Leninakan hospital described that he had seen one hundred victims suffering from the syndrome each day during the first three days. Boris Karapetyan, director of earthquake studies at the Yerevan Polytechnical Institute, said of the difficult rebuilding process “Coordination is a major, major problem. ABSTRACT The Spitak earthquake, magnitude 7 on the Richter scale, which occurred on 7 December 1988 caused extensive damage throughout the area and resulted in over 25,000 deaths. Aznavour, together with Armenian-French composer Georges Garvarentz, formed a foundation called "Aznavour for Armenia" and composed the song as a call for help for the Armenians. Earthquakes similar to or like 1988 Armenian earthquake. Hammer, known for his decades of work with the Occidental Petroleum Corporation, had spoken with Gorbachev prior to leaving and was carrying with him $1 million in relief funds. The newspaper Pravda complained that the lack of cranes meant that "seconds and hours are being lost—that means lives." Deputy chairman of a city building and architecture council said that updated building codes like those in the United States were being drafted (along with a strict requirement that the new protocols be respected) and that the new buildings would be no taller than four stories and would be located away from areas with the highest seismic risk. 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake. One hundred and thirteen countries sent substantial amounts of humanitarian aid to the Soviet Union in the form of rescue equipment, search teams and medical supplies, but private donations and assistance from non-governmental organizations also had a large part of the international effort. Most collapsed, killing two-thirds of the doctors, destroying equipment and medicine, and reducing the capacity to handle the critical medical needs in the region. Response The tapes were then played back and the P-wave and S-wave arrival times were used to automatically determine aftershock locations. Both Leninakan and Kirovakan were roughly equidistant from the shock, yet Leninakan had greater damage. With the collapse of the Soviet Union three years later, reconstruction became even more of an arduous task. In pictures: 25th anniversary of Armenian earthquake, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1988_Armenian_earthquake&oldid=994215973, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles containing Armenian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 17:17. The 6.8 magnitude quake affected an area … For many years following World War II the Soviets practiced a methodical top-down approach to urban planning and building, constructing a large number of uniformly built row style apartment units, and the Soviets plan for rebuilding Spitak did not diverge from that approach. The east-central segment coincided with the surface breaks between Spitak and Gekhasar, while the west-central portion's break was concealed under an anticline and was not visible at the surface. It took six weeks from the creation of the song to completion of the disc and with almost two million copies sold, the foundation was able to build 47 schools and three orphanages for the victims of the disaster. The mainshock produced surface rupture and propagated to the west with a separate strike-slip sub-event occurring two seconds later that propagated to the southeast. This is a massive undertaking, and foreign involvement is both a necessary and a complicating factor. 2:19 [Deleted video] ԿԱՅԱՑՈՒՄ by HaykFilms. [14], The earthquake occurred along a known 60 km (37 mi) thrust fault striking parallel to the Caucasus range and dipping to the north-northeast. The shock occurred in the northern region of Armenia (then part of the Soviet Union) which is vulnerable to large and destructive earthquakes and is part of a larger active seismic belt that stretches from the Alps to the Himalayas. A team of earthquake and engineering experts from the United States spent a period of time in Armenia in December 1988 and January 1989. A second air transport incident occurred the following day at Yerevan (capital of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic) when an Antonov An-12 from Yugoslavia crashed, killing all seven crew on board. A second site that was close to the fault, also near the Pambak river and with similar soil deposits, did not experience liquefaction, though it would have experienced the same high peak ground accelerations as the failed highway embankment. Aleksandr Lebed 30 Sep 20 307 0. Mount Ararat, a 5,137 m (16,854 ft) dormant volcano, lies 100 kilometers (62 mi) to the south of the quake’s epicenter in Turkey. The official communist party newspaper Pravda said that poor construction, like other issues of neglect in the Soviet system, could be blamed on the Era of Stagnation from the era of Leonid Brezhnev. Six friends were in the basement of a nine-story building relocating barrels when it came down around them on December 7. [36] Japan sent a monetary gift of $9 million while Italy had plans to build a prefabricated village for the victims, and West Germany offered to send more than a dozen heavy cranes. Seismologists thoroughly studied the effects of the Spitak event, including the mainshock and aftershock fault rupture mechanisms and were on site setting up temporary seismometers before the end of 1988. Earthquake Those who were killed on the plane were planning to join an estimated 20,000 soldiers and 85,000 civil defence workers in rescue efforts by searching for survivors, supplying food and water, and setting up sanitation facilities in the region. The flight also carried Robert Seiple (president of World Vision) and a UCLA doctor who had worked in the aftermath of the 1985 Mexico City earthquake. The region that the earthquake occurred is vulnerable to occasional large and destructive earthquakes and is part of a larger active seismic belt that stretches from the Alps to the Himalayas. Whenever the plates moving beneath Armenia interlock, pressure builds. Health minister Yevgeniy Chazov urged the creation of a governmental body to assist with disaster management. The first well-documented case of liquefaction in gravelly sands was in regard to the 1983 Borah Peak earthquake in the United States. Aftershocks Armenia News - … Following an invitation by the Soviets for a critique of their plan, the American’s proposal was ultimately accepted as the way forward. The 1988 Armenian earthquake, also known as the Spitak earthquake (Սպիտակի երկրաշարժ, Spitaki yerkrasharj), occurred on December 7 at 11:41 local time with a surface wave magnitude of 6.8 and a maximum MSK intensity of X (Devastating). , but foreign help would be required to build six additional facilities. The range is situated along an active seismic belt that stretches from the Alps in southern Europe to the Himalayas in Asia. The earthquake Private donations from the United States were also significant. A number of the smaller outlying villages away from the larger population centers were also severely affected. Armenia earthquake 1988 Information. The highway's embankment failed, and though the site was repaired immediately, the resulting damage to the highway caused considerable delay in getting people and supplies into and out of the area following the disaster. Other officials decided that the town would be relocated several miles to the southwest. Liquefaction 1988: Death toll rises in Armenian earthquake. Eight of the selected sites were equipped with a vertical component velocity transducer along with an FM telemetry link to transfer data back to a central station where a three-component unit was stationed. Washington immediately responded with offers of doctors, medical equipment, and rescue teams, and by the first weekend the first US plane arrived in Yerevan with search and rescue teams and detection dogs. [25][26] Igor Nesterov, (head of seismology of USSR) said the Leninakan seismic station was destroyed so there was no way of knowing whether it received reports of an earthquake coming its way, although Nesterovs’ colleagues later said the station was not able to receive reports because of the lack of instruments it carried. [30] The shock occurred in the northern region of Armenia (then part of the Soviet Union) which is vulnerable to large and destructive earthquakes … This paper describes case histories of liquefaction-induced embankment failures from the 1988 Armenia earthquake. Waveform modeling established that the faulting originated at a depth of 5 kilometers (3.1 mi) with the epicenter on the Alavar thrust fault on the slopes of the Lesser Caucasusmountains north of Mount Aragats. The Soviet news media and government officials soon began to discuss the apparent substandard construction styles that had caused so many of Armenia’s buildings to collapse. We need foreign assistance—and there is no doubt about that—but our friends do not know the local conditions and propose things that cannot or should not be built in an earthquake-prone region. Aznavour, together with Armenian-French composer Georges Garvarentz, formed a foundation called “Aznavour for Armenia” and composed the song as a call for help for the Armenians. December 7, 2020, 09:09 Today marks 32nd anniversary since 1988 earthquake in Armenia. The daily newspaper Sotsialisticheskaya Industriya noted that there were families living out in the open even while there were an abundance of tents available. Leonid Bibin, deputy chairman of the state building committee, stated that many newer homes collapsed as well and that he was beginning an investigation into the matter and that criminal charges would be brought. In certain situations gravelly sands may liquefy in similar fashion as saturated sands. Noji,2 &A.P. Mkhitarian said that 130 factories were destroyed and 170,000 people were out of work. [38], In February 1989 one hundred construction workers were assembling temporary housing for themselves in Leninakan with a plan to start on the local population's housing by the end of the month, though schools and factories were also on the list of facilities to be rebuilt. Officials acknowledged that the work to complete the rebuilding may take up to five years or longer, a supposition that more than doubled Gorbachev’s estimate of two years. 2:19 [Deleted video] ԿԱՅԱՑՈՒՄ by HaykFilms. Rebuilding Most of those funds went into the initial relief work and medical care plus the beginning portion of the rebuilding phase. Eknoyan G(1). [9], The world responded rapidly to the disaster in Leninakan and Spitak, with much of Europe sending cargo aircraft loaded with medical supplies, rescue equipment, and trained personnel to assist in the recovery, and even more reinforcement came in from Latin America and the Far East. Beginning with late 1987 the Caucasus region was experiencing a surge in political turmoil with large and near constant demonstrations being held in the capital of Yerevan beginning in February 1988. The group, including a structural engineer who specialized in seismic-resistant designs, agreed that building inadequacies were the primary reason why the strong (but not huge) earthquake was so damaging, although the freezing temperatures also played a role in the unusually high death toll. 13:41, 07.12.2020 . The Soviet’s grid plan road scheme was found to not take into account the hillside at the new city’s location, and the American’s plan included finer details of how commercial centers and government facilities were grouped together in an open and communal style. The Americans donated generously as well, with Washington dispatching eight official planeloads of official relief aid plus a Lockheed C-141 Starlifter from Italy. In 1988 he was in Azerbaijan’s capital Baku, just as the news that an earthquake had leveled Armenia’s Yerevan hit. Red tape inevitably held up some of the rescue efforts and criticism of the perceived flawed processes soon followed. The area where Armenia lies is of interest to seismologists and geologists because of the relatively early stage of continental collision occurring there and because the earthquake’s strong aftershock sequence and significant surface faulting presented scientists with an environment to study reverse faulting. American businessman and philanthropist Armand Hammer, well known to the Soviet Union for his financial pursuits and humanitarian ties, left Los Angeles for Armenia on board a Boeing 727 loaded with 2,300 pounds of medical supplies that were provided by theAmerican Red Cross. Then-Armenian Assembly Board Chairman Hirair Hovnanian leading a delegation bringing humanitarian relief to Armenia after the 1988 earthquake WASHINGTON, D.C. – On the 30th Anniversary of the Spitak Earthquake, the Armenian Assembly of America (Assembly) remembers the thousands of lives lost and villages destroyed after a massive earthquake, registering 6.9 on the Richter Scale, struck… Buildings that didn’t collapse featured well-maintained masonry and skeletal components that were joined together adequately in a way that allowed for the building to resistseismic waves. [27] That deluge of western aid was a byproduct of the disaster that may have had a positive effect on Soviet Union–United States relations. Mikhail Gorbachev was in New York on his first day of visits with Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush at the time of the earthquake, and once the scale of the disaster was realized, a quick departure was made back to Armenia, with the Kremlin formally asking for American help. However,case identification onthe basis ofthe addresses givenonthe list provedto be impos-sible since the residences ofmostofthe patients with [30] Nikolai Ryzhkov, the then Chairman of the Council of Ministers, was awarded the National Hero of Armenia for his work in rebuilding the city following the earthquake. Their injuries were minor, but one person did suffer a broken arm. The Metsamor Nuclear Power Plant, around 75 km (47 mi) from the epicenter, experienced only minor shaking and no damage occurred there, but was eventually closed for a period of six years due to vulnerability concerns. Half of those funds were from World Vision International, a California-based relief and development umbrella organization, and the other half were his own personal donation. The cities of Spitak, Leninakan (Gyumri) and Kirovakan (Vanadzor) were greatly affected with large losses of life and devastating effects to buildings and other structures. The negative effect the earthquake had on the economy of Armenia was apparent. War, natural disasters, interpersonal violence, and other causes of trauma continue to plague our world. Following an invitation by the Soviets for a critique of their plan, the American’s proposal was ultimately accepted as the way forward. At the Yerevan airport, western pilots reported a breakdown in air traffic controlcommunications, with flight controllers not delivering the necessary flight navigation instructions, allowing for a critical lack of separation as foreign planes made their way into the area. The seismicity along this belt is marked by frequent major earthquakes from the Aegean Sea, through Turkey and Iran, and into Afghanistan. In February 1989 one hundred construction workers were assembling temporary housing for themselves in Leninakan with a plan to start on the local population’s housing by the end of the month, though schools and factories were also on the list of facilities to be rebuilt. [24][25], The area where Armenia lies is of interest to seismologists and geologists because of the relatively early stage of continental collision occurring there and because the earthquake's strong aftershock sequence and significant surface faulting presented scientists with an environment to study reverse faulting. On 7 December 1988 a devastating earthquake in northern Armenia killed 25,000 and left hundreds of thousands homeless in the Soviet republic. The total number of volunteer rescue personnel in Leninakan totalled 2,000, with teams from Austria, Canada, Switzerland, the United States, Poland and Yugoslavia. Along the western segments the fault split into two branches with one to the southwest and the other to the northwest Buildings and other structures were extensively damaged during the earthquake, but roadways and railways also experienced disturbances. The diam­ eter of the affected area was about 50 miles, which covered a densely populated section of the country. The Armenian earthquake catalogue used for this study had 4600 earthquakes with M≥M min =2.2 in the area bounded by 39.5° to 42°N/42.5° to 47°E. Gorbachev, in a TV interview several weeks after his expedited return from New York City, said that the concrete blocks had been built with more than enough sand but too little concrete, and suggested that the concrete had been stolen. The cost of rebuilding would be a severe obstacle for Perestroika, Gorbachev's plan for economic restructuring. [9], A team of earthquake and engineering experts from the United States spent a period of time in Armenia in December 1988 and January 1989. [15], Waveform modeling established that the faulting originated at a depth of 5 km (3.1 mi) with the epicenter on the Alavar thrust fault on the slopes of the Lesser Caucasus mountains north of Mount Aragats. Hammer, known for his decades of work with the Occidental Petroleum Corporation, had spoken with Gorbachev prior to leaving and was carrying with him $1 million in relief funds. The massive earthquake that struck Armenia on December 7, 1988 at 11:41am measured 7.1 on the Richter Scale. An engineer with the team stated that the regulations for the area mandated that buildings be required to stand up against events measuring seven or eight on the twelve degree Medvedev–Sponheuer–Karnik scale. The three cities closest to the fault rupture experienced different levels of damage. The earthquake occurred along a known 60 km (37 mi) thrust fault striking parallel to the Caucasus range and dipping to the north-northeast. It took six weeks from the creation of the song to completion of the disc and with almost two million copies sold, the foundation was able to build 47 schools and three orphanages for the victims of the disaster. Moving westward closer to the central segments though, a transition of the fault type was becoming apparent, where an almost equal distribution of reverse fault mechanisms were observed as the strike-slip type. According to the book, Armenia in Crisis: The 1988 Earthquake, the man answered: “What do my hands matter, everything I cherish is under there – my son, my daughter, my wife and my mother.” For those fortunate enough to be pulled from the rubble, kidney failure was an immediate concern. The complex incident ruptured multiple faults, with a strike-slip event occurring shortly after the initiation of the mainshock. A total of 189 such individuals were identified through neighbourhood polyclinics in the city of Leninakan and 159 noninjured controls were selected from the same neighbourhoods. Earthquake engineering experts scrutinized building construction styles and found fault in the poorly constructed apartments and other buildings that were built during the Era of Stagnation under the rule of Leonid Brezhnev. Both Leninakan and Kirovakan were roughly equidistant from the shock, yet Leninakan had greater damage. While transporting some of these supplies to the region, a Soviet aircraft carrying 78 relief workers from Azerbaijan and a transport plane fromYugoslavia were both destroyed in separate incidents. This paper examines the geographical components of the damage and the Mikhail Gorbachev was in New York on his first day of visits with Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush at the time of the earthquake, and once the scale of the disaster was realized, a quick departure was made back to Armenia, with the Kremlin formally asking for American help. While foreign doctors did assist with the Chernobyl incident, the Soviet relief effort after the earthquake was augmented by the largest foreign cooperation since World War II. Share. Officials acknowledged that the work to complete the rebuilding may take up to five years or longer, a supposition that more than doubled Gorbachev's estimate of two years. Earthquake In Armenia 1988 by ArmenianEducation. [11][13], The source of the event was a fault rupture 40 kilometers (25 mi) south of the Caucasus Mountains, a mountain range that has been produced by the convergence of the Arabian and the Eurasian tectonic plates. Most collapsed, killing two-thirds of their doctors, destroying equipment and medicine, and reducing the capacity to handle the critical medical needs in the region. [29], Avant-garde musician Pierre Schaeffer led a 498-member French rescue team to look for survivors in Leninakan, and worked there until all foreign personnel were asked to leave after the plan to bulldoze what was left of the ruins was formulated. The 1988 earthquake in Armenia is unique in some ways. Oganesian3 The studyattempts to identifypredictors ofinjuries amongpersons who were hospitalized following the Armenian earthquake of 7 December 1988. geknoyan@bcm.tmc.edu A dreadful earthquake struck a densely populated region of Armenia on December 7, 1988. The world responded rapidly to the disaster in Leninakan and Spitak, with much of Europe sending cargo aircraft loaded with medical supplies, rescue equipment, and trained personnel to assist in the recovery, and even more reinforcement came in from Latin America and the Far East. A director, a doctor, a rescuer - stories of three people who survived the terrible earthquake in Armenia in 1988 and rebuilt their lives In an attempt to offset a six-year-old energy crisis caused by blockades by Azerbaijan and Turkey, the Armenian government in mid-1995 reactivated a nuclear power plant at Metsamor, close since 1988. after the catastrophic earthquake in northern Armenia. As the 25th anniversary of the Armenian Earthquake approaches, she offers us a story of disaster and relief at the end of the Cold War. In Leninakan there was a need for 18 new hospitals, 12 of which could be funded with the assistance of the republics of the Soviet Union, but foreign help would be required to build six additional facilities. For the fifteen months prior to the earthquake and at times up to hundreds of thousands of protesters, represented by the Karabakh Committee, were demanding both democracy and the unification of Nagorno-Karabakh (administered by Soviet Azerbaijan but disputed autonomous territory with an 80% Armenian majority and the Azerbaijani minority) in the mountains of the Karabakh region. The Earthquake Engineering Research Institute's team compared building damage in each city and observed similar results when comparing stone buildings four stories or less in height, but for taller frame-stone buildings, 62% were destroyed at Leninakan while only 23% collapsed at Kirovakan. Boris Karapetyan, director of earthquake studies at the Yerevan Polytechnical Institute, said of the difficult rebuilding process “Coordination is a major, major problem. 300–400 m ( 49 ft ) sedimentary layer that is present beneath the city that from. 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