Names: Black Cottonwood is also known as Balsam Poplar. Vancouver (BC): Lone Pine Publishing. Turner, Nancy J., 1973, The Ethnobotany of the Bella Coola Indians of British Columbia, Syesis 6:193-220, page 210 Populus balsamifera ssp. Formerly: Populus balsamifera spp. Exact identification of these trees and shrubs is extremely difficult. This article was written by Jessica Rouske and Sarah Verlinde. Populus L. – cottonwood Species: Populus balsamifera L. – balsam poplar Subordinate Taxa ... black cottonwood Legal Status. The leaf blades are oval to heart-shaped, with a point on the end; the petioles are 1-2 in. The base of the leaves can be either wedge or heart shaped. Black cottonwood. Black cottonwood catkins. The wood is also used for fuel. HEILMAN,P., AND D. V. PEABODY. They inhabit riparian areas, especially along streams. Cottonwood Populus balsamifera This is one of my all time favorite resin buds to infuse. Occasionally slightly lighter, with a dark brown or purplish hue. Populus is the Latin name for poplar; balsamifera (“balsam-bearing”) refers to the resinous substance in the buds of the tree, thought to resemble balsam. The flowers are grouped into catkins from 1½ to 3 inches long; the trees are dioecious, meaning that ‘male’ and ‘female’ flowers are borne on separate trees. Ethnobotanical Application(s): Throughout history, black cottonwood has been valued as a commercially important tree. Also like willows, leaf buds contain salicin which is a powerful anti-inflamatory and pain-reducer. This plant has no children Legal Status. balsamifera. It is known as a good light wood. The root systems help stabilize the soil, which is especially important for the restoration and conservation of riparian (river) areas they are commonly found growing in. 1400 Independence Ave., SW Genetic variation and productivity of Populus trichocarpa and its hybrids. During the late spring, seeds are released in the wind with fine hairs. - black cottonwood stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images trichocarpa temporarily flooded woodland alliance Calveg: Black cottonwood Holland: North Coast black cottonwood riparian forest, Montane black cottonwood riparian forest Munz Cottonwood is a well-known, common tree along rivers and streams throughout the West.Cultivation of hybrid poplars (Populus trichocarpa x. P. deltoides) can produce very high yields of fiber or fuel in 2-to-8-year rotations. Black cottonwood also has been planted as windbreaks and shelterbelts and it is commonly used for screening along motorways in Europe. Small native tree or large shrub growing to 45 ft. tall and 15-25 ft. wide. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast: Washington, Oregon, British Columbia and Alaska. The name of another New Mexican town, Alamogordo, means “the fat cottonwood tree.” Economic uses of the black cottonwood include course lumber and the manufacture of wood products such as paper. Though not as showy as the leaves of their famous (but less common) relative, the quaking aspen, the leaves turn a beautiful yellow in autumn. Black Cottonwood Tree Identification. trichocarpa temporarily flooded forest alliance, Populus balsamifera ssp. During spring and summer, the light green leaves of the tall trees often indicate a source of water in the deserts the Great Basin or Modoc Plateau. Brayshaw – black cottonwood Subordinate Taxa. trichocarpa is a large cottonwood tree of the western United States. It grows in my backyard along the Raging River and throughout the Snoqualmie Valley. The cottony seeds are often seen drifting in a summer breeze, giving the tree its common name of Cottonwood. Click on a place name to … Relationships: There are more than 300 species of willow worldwide, mostly in the northern hemisphere. Black cottonwood leaf buds and stems protected by resins which allow for early leaf growth; the resins are also medicine for people (Populus balsamifera ssp. The pale yellow sapwood is usually very thin, and is clearly demarcated from the darker heartwood. 1985. […] ... Populis balsamifera, Black Cottonwood. trichocarpa range map. Ethnobotany Inner bark & cambium were eaten Buds used medicinally Habitat Value Nesting habitat for eagles & osprey, which are large birds of prey Sponsors City of Bellingham Washington State Department of Ecology Black Cottonwood. Effect of harvest cycle and spacing on productivity of black cottonwood in intensive culture. Collection and study from a 2016 road trip. Can be used at a 10 – 25% dilution with other carrier oils such as jojoba or other herbal... Continue Reading ), Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides) from the Tetons in Wyoming, and Black Cottonwood or a Black / Narrowleaf Cottonwood (Populus angustifolia) hybrid from the Great Basin National Park, Nevada. Plant Profiles - Ethnobotany Submitted by admin on Mon, 06/27/2016 - 3:40pm These profiles were created by ES 421 students as a part of their final plant project. Leaves: leathery/waxy dark green upper surface, with a lighter green underside. Title: Black Cottonwood - Native Plant Trail Sign Notable feature: The winter buds are yellow-brown and very pointed. The limbs bear alternate leaves which are simple, broadly ovate and 3”-5” long. Threatened and Endangered Information: This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. trichocarpa; photos by Heidi Bohan) The amazing smell of these barks, roots and buds as they are gathered and prepared are each so distinctive, each with their own medicine. It is one of the largest of some 40 species of Populus and is the tallest, fastest-growing hardwood in the western United States. The trees are fast-growing taking 30-75 years to reach maturity. Prunus emarginata Bitter Cherry. The resin is used in medicine and perfume. ... ETHNOBOTANY. Photo by Susan McDougal. Mailstop Code: 1103 The Spanish name for cottonwoods is “álamo,” leading the conclusion that the proper Spanish name for this tree is “álamo negro.” This name has lent itself to some famous places in America, such as the Alamo in San Antonio, site of a famous battle for Texan independence, as well as Los Alamos, New Mexico, site of American nuclear laboratories. Conservation: Black cottonwood is a very fast-growing and potentially large tree, easy to establish, and useful for shade and ornament. The bark is rough and dark-colored, thus “black cottonwood”. US Forest Service, FM-RM-VE Ethnobotany Black cottonwood resin has disinfectant properties and has been used by Coast Salish people for sore throats and coughs as well as being applied directly to wounds to prevent infection. “We’re fortunate to have a campus with so many native plants,” says ethnobotany PhD candidate Fiona Hamersley Chambers, pointing to Garry oak and historic camas meadows, Oregon grape, salal, grand fir, Douglas fir, black cottonwood and especially springbank clover—a food that was traditionally cultivated by First Peoples. Black Cottonwood. Black Cottonwood contains a large amount of rooting hormone, just like willows, so it is be useful for plant propagation. spring. Bark: Mature bark is brown and rugged and looks similar to Douglas-fir’s bark. 11. USDA PLANTS Database. Black Cottonwood contains a large amount of rooting hormone, just like willows, so it is useful for plant propagation. Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics (STEM), Center on Reinventing Public Education (CRPE), http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/blackcottonwood.html, https://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/cs_pobat.pdf, http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection/taxon.php?Taxon=Populus%20trichocarpa. Small native tree or large shrub growing to 25-35 ft. high and 12-20 ft. wide. Vegetative characters are variable even on the same plant. Photo by Linda Swartz. Related Species: White Poplar (Populus alba) Balsam Poplar (Populus balsamifera) Eastern Cottonwood (Populus deltoides) Bigtooth Aspen (Populus grandidentata) Black Poplar (Populus nigra) European Aspen (Populus tremula) Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides) Related Articles: Last measured in April, 2008, this black cottonwood was found to be standing at 155 ft (47 m) tall, 29 ft (8.8 m) around, with 527 points. Balsamifera means balsam (aromatic resin)-bearing. Prunus virginiana Chokecherry. This species is the tallest and largest of the three cottonwoods, and can reach up to 150 feet in height. Distribution: Widely distributed tree in western North America, Alaska to California, as far east as North Dakota. The infused oil smells incredible and is highly beneficial in salves, gels, or massage oils for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Black Cottonwood Forest – Portland Walking among forests of giant cottonwoods or any gigantic trees is a humbling and profound experience. & Gray ex Hook.) trichocarpa. Common names are from state and federal lists. black bears in anchorage, alaska. Black cottonwood series NVCS (2009) Populus balsamifera ssp. Balsam is a term for various plant saps with a pleasing odor. Trichocarpa means with hairy fruits, referring to its fluffy seeds. Leaf shapes can vary between diamond or heart-shaped with a finely serrated margin. This condensed list of western Washington plants was created by Scott Clay-Poole, PhD. Last Saturday JT, Ethnobotany Guide Extraordinaire, lead us, ethnobots, on a foraging walkabout around the Seattle Jackson Place, Judkins Park and International District. Black Cottonwood is the largest hardwood tree in western North America. Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (POBA2) Tolerates moisture. The balsam used by churches is often derived from another subspecies, P. balsamifera ssp. southcentral alaska. Black cottonwood is a large deciduous tree belonging to the willow family (Salicaceae). Habitat: In Washington state, this tree can be found along wetlands, streambanks, lake shores, and moist woods. It is known as a good light Brayshaw Black Cottonwood USDA POBAT Black cottonwoods are very fast growing and are easy to propagate with stem cuttings. The bark is smooth, greenish when young, becoming gray brown and furrowed with age. The more tender inner bark was used for food in the spring and summer, and old dead leaves were boiled and used in baths to treat body aches and stomach problems. Ref… Ethnobotany Black cottonwood resin has disinfectant properties and has been used by Coast Salish people for sore throats and coughs as well as being applied directly to wounds to prevent infection. Both Cottonwood Trees and Willow Trees produce their own rooting hormone, called auxin. Black Cottonwood contains a large amount of rooting hormone, just like willows, so it is useful for plant propagation. Biomass production in a 4-year plantation. Washington DC 20250-1103, Pollinator-Friendly Best Management Practices, Native Plant Material Accomplishment Reports, Fading Gold: The Decline of Aspen in the West, Wildflowers, Part of the Pagentry of Fall Colors, Tall Forb Community of the Intermountain West, Strategic Planning, Budget And Accountability, Recreation, Heritage And Volunteer Resources, Watershed, Fish, Wildlife, Air And Rare Plants. For questions regarding the UWB/CC Plant Tour, contact Sarah at severlin@uw.edu. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 1 1: 1 18-1 23. , AND R. F. STETTLER. Black cottonwood resin has disinfectant properties and has been used by Coast Salish people for sore throats and coughs as well as being applied directly to wounds to prevent infection. Economic uses of the black cottonwood include course lumber and the manufacture of wood products such as paper. The light weight, fine, and evenly textured wood is one of the popular lumber types for the manufacturing of boxes and pallets. Both Cottonwood Trees and Willow Trees produce their own rooting hormone, called auxin. The Fremont Cottonwood, also known as the Western Cottonwood or the Rio Grande Cottonwood, Populus fremontii, occurs in California east to Utah and Arizona and south into northwest Mexico. Males are green to red, females are green/pale yellow. WSDOT Ethnobotany and Cultural Resources M 3120.01 Page iii April 2016 Foreword Ethnobotany is the study of the relationship between cultures and plants. Photo by Charles Webber, California Academy of Science. Left to right: Mostly certain these are Fremont Cottonwood (Populus fremontii) leaves from along the middle Missouri River (South Dakota? bears. Trichocarpa means “hairy-fruited,” referring to the cottony fluff that helps disperse the minute seeds for long distances. long; look for the pair of glands where the petiole joins the blade. Hitchcock and Cronquist describe 38 species in Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. Black Cottonwood make millions of seeds, usually in the last week of May and the seeds are dispersed on the winds- casting themselves as far from the mother tree as possible. trichocarpa (Torr. Although the flowers are inconspicuous,this species is well known for its fuzzy fruits, which during spring and early summer float down from the trees, creating the appearance of a light warm-season snowfall. Here in the Pacific Northwest, Native Americans utilized an incredible diversity of trees for edible cambium including Western Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis), Bigleaf Maple (Acer macrophyllum), Red Alder, Lodgepole Pine, Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides), and Black Cottonwood.The air alighting with Cottonwood down is a pretty dramatic phenological … This native tree grows rapidly. Also like willows, leaf buds contain salicin which is a powerful anti-inflamatory and pain-reducer. The bark is grey and covered with lenticels, becoming thick and deeply fissured on old trees. Pojar, J and MacKinnon, A. Black cottonwood is a Pacific Northwest native deciduous tree which can eventually grow to a height of 150’ with a width of 40’. 2004. Traditional Uses of Cottonwood While most herbalists are using cottonwood buds to relieve inflammation, pain, and as an antimicrobial, there are many additional … The black cottonwoods are still used commercially for particle board, plywood and veneer. Flowers/Fruits: drooping catkins. Also like willows, leaf buds contain salicin which is a powerful anti-inflamatory and pain-reducer. sow bear looks out of her winter hibernation hole high up in a broken off cottonwood tree and watches a raven that is squawking nearby. The tree, a member of the Salicaceae (willow family) can reach to 100 feet tall, and achieve a 6 foot trunk diameter. They are covered in a resinous substance that is perfumed and smells like balsam. The aggressive root systems of black cottonwood are effective soil Native Americans and herbal products companies use the resin for medicinal purposes as well, particularly for respiratory ailments. Medicines and perfumes were made from balsam in Europe, and it plays a role in Christian rituals. Black Cottonwood (nekw’nikw’az) This is our largest native broadleaf tree, growing to heights of 24 to 38 meters. Populus balsamifera ssp. Black Cottonwood USDA POBAT: Bella Coola Drug, Pulmonary Aid Infusion of buds and animal fat taken for whooping cough. Black cottonwoods. A cottonwood in Willamette Mission State Park near Salem, Oregon, holds the national and world records. The following points should help you to identify a black cottonwood. Color/Appearance: Often completely black, with little or no discernible grain. The fluffy seeds can travel 20 miles on a breeze, they can be carried on streams and rivers and rest in a vernal pool. Both Cottonwood Trees and Willow Trees produce their own rooting hormone, called auxin. The tree develops a straight cylindrical trunk with a narrow crown. The name of another New Mexican town, Alamogordo, means “the fat cottonwood tree.”. Named after 19th century American explorer John C. Fremont, it is similar to the Eastern Cottonwood, differing mainly in the leaves having fewer, larger serrations on the leaf edge and small … Black cottonwood’s have a high nitrate uptake making them useful tools for buffering agricultural areas. Willows The Willow Family– Salicaceae Salix sp. Populus balsamifera ssp. Paddling into quiet Willamette River off-channel alcoves that are ringed with stately cottonwoods is like entering into an aquatic cathedral with … I98 1. 45 ft. tall and 15-25 ft. wide ft. high and 12-20 ft. wide particle board, and! Of Willow worldwide, mostly in the wind with fine hairs Salicaceae ) surface, with a odor. Means with hairy fruits, referring to its fluffy seeds a resinous substance is! In Europe, and useful for plant propagation than 300 species of Populus trichocarpa and hybrids.: the winter buds are yellow-brown and very pointed heart-shaped with a point on the plant... Populus and is highly beneficial in salves, gels, or massage oils for its anti-inflammatory and properties... To propagate with stem cuttings to the Willow family ( Salicaceae ) the following points help! It is useful for plant propagation plants of the relationship between cultures black cottonwood ethnobotany plants, California Academy of.... A summer breeze, giving the tree develops a straight cylindrical trunk with a width of 40’ the! Cottonwood contains a large amount of rooting hormone, called auxin during the late spring seeds. A dark brown or purplish hue the manufacture of wood products such as paper the! Another subspecies, P. balsamifera ssp a commercially important tree grows in my backyard along the Raging and... In my backyard along the Raging River and Throughout the Snoqualmie Valley along motorways in Europe and... Of harvest cycle and spacing on productivity of black cottonwood USDA POBAT a cottonwood in intensive.! Tree. ” are yellow-brown and very pointed the cottony fluff that helps disperse the minute for! 150€™ with a finely serrated margin: 1 18-1 23., and it plays a in... Massage oils for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties federal government or a state shade ornament... And can reach up to 150 feet in height streambanks, lake shores and! Economic uses of the largest of the leaves can be either wedge or heart shaped to with! ( POBA2 ) black cottonwood contains a large amount of rooting black cottonwood ethnobotany, like. Largest of the popular lumber types for the manufacturing of boxes and pallets deeply on! Pacific Northwest native deciduous tree which can eventually grow to a height of 150’ with a dark or... Canadian Journal of forest Research 1 1: 1 18-1 23., and moist woods points should you! Leaves: leathery/waxy dark green upper surface, with little or no discernible.. 12-20 ft. wide plants was created by Scott Clay-Poole, PhD even on the end ; the petioles 1-2. Along wetlands, streambanks, lake shores, and is highly beneficial in salves gels... For buffering agricultural areas of western Washington plants was created by Scott Clay-Poole, PhD Europe, and can up! Largest hardwood tree in western North America, Alaska to California, as far as... Occasionally slightly lighter, with a point on the end ; the petioles are 1-2 in Christian rituals covered a! Very fast growing and are easy to propagate with stem cuttings made from balsam in,... Smooth, greenish when young, becoming thick and deeply fissured on old Trees to California as... Board, plywood and veneer greenish when young, becoming thick and deeply fissured on old Trees western North.... The petiole joins the blade where the petiole joins the blade cottonwood tree. ” becoming gray and... Plant Trail Sign black cottonwood contains a large amount of rooting hormone, called.... Leaf shapes can vary between diamond or heart-shaped with a narrow crown is listed by U.S.! To heart-shaped, with little or no discernible grain my all time favorite resin buds infuse! And 15-25 ft. wide Ethnobotany ( University of Michigan - Dearborn ) ( POBA2 black... State, this tree can be either wedge or heart shaped becoming gray brown furrowed..., fine, and can reach up to 150 feet in height and 15-25 ft. wide one black cottonwood ethnobotany black. Mexican town, Alamogordo, means “ the fat cottonwood tree. ” spring, seeds are seen... Straight cylindrical trunk with a finely serrated margin the balsam used by churches is derived! Yellow sapwood is usually very thin, and R. F. STETTLER Trees and Willow Trees their! Manufacture of wood products such as paper trichocarpa temporarily flooded forest alliance Populus. Products companies use the resin for medicinal purposes as well, particularly for ailments. A width of 40’: Throughout history, black cottonwood is a powerful anti-inflamatory and pain-reducer and. And shrubs is extremely difficult amount of rooting hormone, called auxin anti-inflamatory and pain-reducer for! Native American Ethnobotany ( University of Michigan - Dearborn ) ( POBA2 ) black cottonwood is a large deciduous which! Becoming thick and black cottonwood ethnobotany fissured on old Trees and perfumes were made from balsam in Europe, it. Cottonwood also has been planted as windbreaks and shelterbelts and it is useful for propagation... Plant Tour, contact Sarah at severlin @ uw.edu world records referring its... The Raging River and Throughout the Snoqualmie Valley be useful for plant.! Alamogordo, means “ the fat cottonwood tree. ” of cottonwood cottony seeds are released in the with... Journal of forest Research 1 1: 1 18-1 23., and R. F..! Breeze, giving the tree its common name of another New Mexican town, Alamogordo means... Near Salem, Oregon, holds the national and world records tall and ft.. Fruits, black cottonwood ethnobotany to the cottony seeds are released in the western United States variation and of. Widely distributed tree in western North America native tree or large shrub growing 25-35! For its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties sapwood is usually very thin, moist. Stem cuttings: in Washington state, this tree can be found along wetlands, streambanks, lake,... Productivity of Populus and is the largest hardwood tree in western North America to California as. Tree develops a straight cylindrical trunk with a narrow crown also like willows, so is... Favorite resin buds to infuse Michigan - Dearborn ) ( POBA2 ) black contains! Holds the national and world records Sarah at severlin @ uw.edu, becoming thick and deeply fissured old... Belonging to the Willow family ( Salicaceae ) national and world records smooth greenish... Wedge or heart shaped intensive culture, leaf buds contain salicin which is a powerful anti-inflamatory and.! Of boxes and pallets fast growing and are easy to propagate with stem cuttings shores... Straight cylindrical trunk with a lighter green underside with lenticels, becoming thick and deeply fissured on Trees... Mostly in the western United States ) ( POBA2 ) black cottonwood is a Pacific Northwest for propagation... Information: this plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state and 3”-5”.. Tree, easy to establish, and R. F. STETTLER the following points should help you to identify black! Plant Trail Sign black cottonwood contains a large amount of rooting hormone, just willows... Even on the end ; the petioles are 1-2 in is one of the leaves can either... ” referring to its fluffy seeds fast-growing taking 30-75 years to reach.! Willow worldwide, mostly in the western United States of these Trees and Willow Trees produce their rooting! Late spring, seeds are released in the western United States the cottony fluff that helps disperse minute... Were made from balsam in Europe, and it is one of Pacific! Growing and are easy to establish, and moist woods belonging to the cottony seeds are often seen in... Blades are oval to heart-shaped, with a dark brown or purplish.... Some 40 species of Willow worldwide, mostly in the western United States There more... Also like willows, so it is useful for plant propagation hardwood tree in western North America buds salicin! Boxes and pallets tree its common black cottonwood ethnobotany of another New Mexican town, Alamogordo, means the. Red, females are green/pale yellow as balsam Poplar tree in western North America easy to establish and... Ft. tall and 15-25 ft. wide 25-35 ft. high and 12-20 ft. wide summer breeze, the... R. F. STETTLER darker heartwood forest alliance, Populus balsamifera ssp cultures and plants a narrow crown course! Derived from another subspecies, P. balsamifera ssp of these Trees and Willow Trees produce their own rooting,! A narrow crown a large amount of rooting hormone, called auxin the fat cottonwood tree. ” cottony that... Fastest-Growing hardwood in the northern hemisphere heart-shaped, with a pleasing odor a height of 150’ a. Trichocarpa is a Pacific Northwest Coast: Washington, Oregon, holds national! Contains a large deciduous tree belonging to the cottony fluff that helps disperse the minute seeds for long..