Facts about Roman Shields 4: the shape of Roman shields. The Roman shields complete a Roman army. Shield Roman Reenactment Historical Costume. Scutum shield The heavily armored Roman legionaries carried large shields (scuta) that could provide far more protection, but made swift movement a little more difficult. Reasons for it: 1. Roman Legionaire Shield. Why Did Beaufort and York’s Rivalry Lead to the Wars of the Roses? The scutum originally had an oval shape, but gradually the curved tops and sides … This shield is the only known surviving example of the examples known as a scutum. It wasn’t unusual to see a hexagonal Germanic shield in the gladiators’ ring, while an elaborately decorated scutum, parma or clipeus served to heighten the spectacle. Early shields were typically constructed of wood and animal hide and later reinforced with metal.eval(ez_write_tag([[728,90],'historyhit_com-box-3','ezslot_17',142,'0','0'])); Roman soldiers or legionaires were well protected by leather and iron armour, helmets and shields, called scuta. As time passed, these were reinforced with higher quality materials like metal, iron and steel. Roman Shields for Sale. Each of the battles they faced were handled differently. Based on examples discovered at archaeological sites, the clipeus was constructed of vertical glued planks, covered with painted leather and bound on the edges with stitched rawhide.eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'historyhit_com-banner-1','ezslot_11',161,'0','0'])); The entertainment aspect of gladiatorial fighting leant itself to variety. This was to aid soldiers in launching their spear attacks while simultaneously repelling the enemy’s charges. This was the Testudo formation. 5 talking about this. Who Invented Chess and When Did it Start Being Played? They could be in rectangular, circular or oval. About the fifth century B.C., the round shield was almost completely replaced in the … Parma had a handle and a shield boss (umbo). This round shield was used by the … Early oval scuta evolved into the rectangular, semi-cylindrical versions, which were used by the foot soldiers of the early Empire to great effect. The scutum was large and usually came in oval or rectangular shapes; plus, these also had concave curves to provide better protection to the foot soldiers. If necessary, legionaries positioned at the rear and sides of the Testudo stood sideways or backwards. Although the clipeus was used alongside the rectangular legionaire or great scutum, after the 3rd century the oval or round clipeus became the standard shield of the Roman soldier. Their concave nature offered substantial protection, but made the use of weapons somewhat difficult as it restricted arm movement. Many shields were based on Greek aspis or hoplon, which were round and deeply concave like a dish. Jupiter was the king of the Roman Gods. The Clipeus was another well-known shield that was utilized after the 3rd century in Rome. The Different Types Of Roman Shields. The foulkon maneuver which has evolved from Rome allowed the entire unit to easily move closer to the enemy since soldiers were boxed and protected by the shields. * ... Yetholm-type shield This page was last edited on 28 January 2018, at 17:28 (UTC). His other armour included armoured greaves, a protective belt above a loin cloth, and a helmet with a side plume, visor and high … Magnificent Pre-Dynastic City Of Sais And Its Lost Neglected Ruins. Share to Twitter Share to … Five types of Roman standard (129 instances) may be identified through comparison with literary, epigraphic and other iconographic sources: praetorian centurial signum ... An oval shield is carried, indistinguishable in form and carriage from auxiliary shields. Soldiers at the back ranks would set their shields above their heads to shield the Testudo from above. Most of the depicted legionary shields are of either curved-oval or curved-rectangular construction. These wings are eagles wings. This is the reason why Roman shields and swords have become vital pieces during their long history of warfare. One of the most efficient uses of the Scutum was for battle formation and in particular the Testudo or Tortoise formation. The oval scutum is depicted on the Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus in Rome, the Aemilius Paullus monument at Delphi, and there is an actual example found at Kasr el-Harit in Egypt. The Parma was about 36 inches (91 cm) across (or less) and had iron in its frame, making it a very effective piece of armor. This is a quick powerpoint explaining the features of the most common design on a Roman Shield and the significance of the shield designs to the Roman Army. A new online only channel for history lovers, Eight Egyptian Mummies Discovered in Tomb near Luxor with Chris Naunton, The Rollright Stones: Mind, Myre and Magic. In the former, the soldiers carried a round shield, which the Romans called a clipeus. They would align their Scutum shields before them and also above their heads. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shields. This one - a simple round wooden shield with metal center. Roman Cavarly Shields. The 'Tortoise' formation. Troops who were immobile or on the march could possibly form this; however, the main drawback of it would be the difficulty of performing hand to hand combat. Credit: Public Domain. There were also instances when the shields of the entire unit were utilized to build a strong protective wall. The Roman Shields available via the Swords of the Forge online store are made by craftsmen and are historical replicas of those used back in ancient times. A battle formation that made excellent use of the great scuta was the testudo or tortoise formation, in which soldiers would gather close and align their shields both in front and on top. In ancient warfare, shields were a common tool that came in different shapes and sizes. Aspides were wooden and sometimes plated with bronze. When it came to gladiator fights, the shields were often dressed with intricate designs to increase the spectacle of the battle. Written by – Rafael - AncientPages.com Contributor, Copyright © AncientPages.com All rights reserved. The primary drawback to the formation was that it greatly sacrificed speed and mobility on the battlefield. 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The scutum may have been perfect for the legionaries but was too massive for soldiers who were usually on horseback. The lightening bolts signify Jupiter. Buckler Shield. 8 Simple Ways to Start Discovering Your Family History, The 6 Kings and Queens of the Stuart Dynasty In Order. It was found at Dura Europos. Use of shield in Roman military. They began considering the type of terrain, the strength of their opponents, as well as their own strength in battle. Medieval shields (11 P) R Roman shields (1 C, 4 P) Pages in category "Shields" The following 36 pages are in this category, out of 36 total. Gradually the scutumevolved into the rectangular (or sub-rectangular) type of the early Roman Empire… Subcategories. Some descriptions of the testudo discriminate betw… Used mostly by vikings proved to be the best shield. The Art of Illustrating Medieval History and Warfare. At the time of its invasion of Britain, the Roman army was the most disciplined and efficient killing machine that the ancient world had ever known. On the left side of the soldier's body was his shield (scutum) used for protection. How Did Vikings Celebrate Yule – The Winter Solstice? The earlier kinds of shields were commonly made from wood and animal hide. This list may not reflect recent changes . Later, the parma was replaced by the scutum. The use of shields in battle originates in pre-history and is present in the earliest known human civilisations. Its men were well-equipped and highly trained, and operated in strict formation on the battlefield. The Testudo formation, which was also known as the tortoise formation, was a kind of shield wall often utilized by the Roman Legions. The painted decoration on the surface reflects typical Romaniconography of military victory, including an eagle on a globe, two … The Scutum. If you take a look at paintings or films depicting ancient warriors, shields were mainly used for protection in armed combat. Roman shields 1. The aspis was round shield, made of wood and often covered in leather. This shield was the template for most of the shields in the Greek and Roman empires for centuries. There is also a template to design a Roman shield and link to a website with instructions on how to build a Roman shield. These types of shields were used in extremely impressive forms of tactical battle strategy back in the Roman Empire … Kite Shield. 2. If all-round protection was needed, men on the flanks and at the rear could also present and lock their nearly metre-wide shields together, their sharply curved fronts forming an excellent missile barrier. Scutum and clipeus shields. These were frequently utilized due to each of their specific purposes. A typical Parma measured a maximum of 36 inches across and had a strong iron frame, though these were eventually abandoned for lighter oval shields of wood and leather. Standard Bearer Shield Roman Shields: Introduction. There were times when oval-shaped Roman shields were linked together to create a defensive barrier. Posted by Mary Ann Bernal at 3:00 AM. This would have the shields covering the front and the top. Roman legionaries and auxiliaries. It was a semi-circular shield, designed so that any missiles thrown at the soldier would be deflected to one side. The spread of the Roman Empire was partly due to the fact that the Roman army was so well organised. Facts about Roman Shields 5: clypeus Fascinating Ancient History Of Roman Shields. Blazon types are ‘piles’; vegetal tendrils, palmette, concentric rings, thunderbolts-and-wings, and plain/unfinished. This is to say that shields were built for primarily three different reasons. 12 Significant Ancient Greek and Roman Historians, The Rollright Stones: One of the Greatest Neolithic Sites in Britain. Weapons used by some gladiators included knives and swords, shields, and helmets. The formation would protect the entire unit from frontal assaults as well as projectile attacks from the enemy. The eagle was the symbol of the Roman army. In fact, the round shield is the most common style in all of history. Although extremely effective for protection, the formation restricted any arm movement, thus, making it extremely challenging to counterattack. They provided minimal defense and moderate level of additional offense. Rafael - AncientPages.com - Throughout history, the use of shields for battle has been present since the early civilizations. Who Was The Mysterious Spitalfields Roman Noblewoman Dressed In Silk Found In A Sarcophagus In London? Scutum- shield. Below are some replicas of Roman shields. Originally it was an oblong and convex shield. This weapon is known also as the ‘Hispanic Sword’, as it was adapted from the blades used by tribal warriors living in the Iberian Peninsula. London’s Underground Rivers Were Deliberately Hidden, Curious Historical Observation Of A Bronze Age Warrior Who Shouldn’t Exist, Confucius: Philosopher, Educationist And Great Intellect With A Noble Morality, Inscription Found In Ancient Thracian Tomb in Bulgaria’s Tatarevo Is A Verse from Solon’s ‘Prayer to the Muses’, Movie Stars’ Creepy Encounters With The Unexplained, Excavations of the Aşıklı Mound, Cappadocia , Turkey, The Day When The Sun Did Not Come Out – Bizarre Event In 1780, New England. Satellite Images Of 66 New Roman Army Sites Show More Clues About One Of The Empire’s Most Infamous Conflicts, Statue Of Goddess Cybele Looted In The 1960s Returned To Turkey. Roman shields. It allowed soldiers to shield themselves against all kinds of missiles. Probably the most iconic weapon in the arsenal of a Roman legionary (a professional heavy infantryman serving in the Roman army after the Marian reforms) was the gladius (which is Latin for ‘sword’). The roundopening in the centre would originally have been covered by a protective boss,probably iron, now lost. The shape and size of these shields allowed the warriors to further protect their bodies against enemy attacks. Roman shields worked excellently for the Testudo. Without these, the legionaries would simply be walking targets out on the battlefield. Sometimes a layer of bronze was added for added nose-breaking strength. Both the men and the weapons were owned (and rented out) by the head of the school. If you compare the wars and battles of the past to the ones seen in movies today, you will learn just how deadly and gruesome those events were. Contestants were therefore outfitted with different types of shields, whether of Greek or Roman origin or from a foreign, conquered land. all type of shields such as:-romans,vikings and all The scutum was a type of shield used among Italic peoples in antiquity, and then by the army of ancient Rome starting about the fourth century BC. The most famous of the Roman shields, great scuta were large and either rectangular or oval. The shapes and styles of Roman shields differed according to use and timeframe. At some point, these Roman warriors came up with battle formations to protect, as well as to attack enemy troops. It’s easy to craft and not too expensive 2. In Ancient Rome, there were three popular kinds of shields. In the latter, they used the scutum, which was a larger shield. Stone weapons and poses … Types of Medieval Shields. The Romans adopted it when they switched from the military formation of the hoplite phalanx of the Greeks to the formation with maniples. These planks would be concealed with painted leather and were wrapped around the edges with rawhide. The Parma. Both these types of gladiators had distinctively small shields. There were many kinds of Roman shields used by legionaries (soldiers). How Much – If Any – of the Romulus Legend Is True? These usually measured around 36 inches or less and were often crafted out from various materials like wood, iron, and leather. Here I present the the most iconic and prominent historical shields that countless warriors have used throughout the past. Their concave nature offered substantial protection, but made the use of weapons somewhat difficult as it restricted arm movement. Mysterious Etruscan Stone Structures Hidden In The Malano Forest – Evidence Of Ancient Unknown High-Tech Knowledge? In Roman warfare, the Testudo was a shield wall formation commonly used during battles, particularly sieges and was used to protect the Legionary's from all types of missile attacks. See Also: 10 Facts about Roman Legions. What do you think the different parts of the shield symbolise? Roman Auxiliary shield. Was There An Explosion In The Great Pyramid In Antiquity? What Led to George, Duke of Clarence’s Execution by Wine. 1)Round shield: The most common shield in history, having examples in every corner of the world in antiquity, is the round shield. The use of rectangular scuta ended by the 3rd century AD, but scuta in general survived into the Byzantine Empire. Sheepskin was used above the handle to make the grip more comfortable. It was rectangular in shape and usually measured around two and a half feet wide by five feet tall. Roman shields also featured a boss or umbo, a thick, round, wooden or metal protrusion that deflected blows and served as a place to mount the grip. These were the more popular types of Roman shields. These were commonly crafted from vertical planks that were held together using a certain type of glue. Replica with wings and thunderbolt : Replica with a laurel wreath : The back of a replica shield, showing the wooden strips which reinforce the shield. They would have their shields held as front rows to protect the rear and sides of the form. 3. This protected the group from frontal attacks and projectiles launched from above.eval(ez_write_tag([[728,90],'historyhit_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',143,'0','0'])); For reasons of movement and balance, soldiers on horseback used smaller round shields, called parma. The grave stele of 'Annaius Daverzus' an auxiliary soldier of Cohors IIII Delmatarum (CIL 13, 07507) shows a shield that is large, rectangular and completely flat with a horizontal handgrip. Their uniquely large scuta, as the Romans’ shields were called, allowed them to present a 360-degree wall of wood to opponents. The Thraex, or Thracian, was a type of Roman gladiator, armed in the Thracian style with a small rectangular, square or circular shield called a parmula and a very short sword with a slightly curved blade called a sica, intended to maim an opponent's unarmoured back. It was during the Second Punic War against Carthage that the Roman general, Scipio Africanus , encountered this weapon, took a liking to it, and began equipping his soldiers … Early ancient Roman swords were similar to those of the Greeks, called xiphe (plural; singular xiphos).From the 3rd century BC, however, the Romans adopted a sword similar to the one used by the Celtiberians and … This mid 3rd century AD semi-cylindrical shield is known asa scutum and was used by legionary soldiers of the Roman Empire.Constructed of thin strips of wood glued together in layers to create a plywoodboard, the surface is covered with red-dyed hide or parchment. However, the disadvantage of it would be the decrease in mobility and speed of the unit. Auxiliary soldiers had a different shaped shield (see below). These types of Roman shields featured a rounded shape and right in the middle of this was an iron bolt with a sharpened point. By the first century BC it had developed into … It wasn’t unusual to see a hexagonal Germanic shield in the gladiators’ ring, while an elaborately decorated scutum, parma or clipeus served to heighten the spectacle. eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'historyhit_com-box-4','ezslot_12',160,'0','0'])); The clipeus was the Roman version of the Greek aspis. The advantage of this was that it provided consistent strength and defense against the enemy. The foulkon played a vital role in the tactics used by the Byzantines against their enemies from the east. For instance, a torso armor is used to cover the torso, the limb armor is used to cover the hands and the feet, and so on. The entirety of the Roman infantry focused on certain tactics and ideas. The colour Red was the symbol of Mars, the Roman God of war. Because of this, mounted warriors made use of smaller rounded shields called the Parma. A Roman Scutum This type of shield was in use by the Roman Republic into the 3rd century. Claims made by Cassius Dio state that during the Battle of Carrhae, an array of Roman shields were defeated by horse archers and Parthian cataphracts. And it was usually slightly cylindrical in shape. Have a look at this Roman shield. Some Roman shields were strengthened by plating their edges with a copper alloy, though this was eventually abandoned in favour of using stitched rawhide, which bound the shields more effectively. Why Were American Soldiers Called Yankees And Where Does Yankee Doodle Come From? This was necessary to protect the form’s front. This specific formation required soldiers to move together closely. Since the soldiers were closely packed and were required to move simultaneously, speed had to be sacrificed and executing attacks were tricky. The Roman shields complete a Roman army. This shield is called a scutum. The parma wa… Here are three kinds of Roman shields. In this specific formation, soldiers would carefully align their shields to create a packet formation. The first row of soldiers firmly kept their shields leveled to their shins and to their eyes. Were The Knights Templar Guilty Or Innocent Of The Crimes Laid Against Them? Eventually, the Roman warriors realized that they cannot simply rely on such tactics. Email This BlogThis! Medium and large well organised formation got its name these usually measured around two a! Was there an Explosion in the latter, they used the scutum were round and deeply concave a... Their long history of warfare size of these shields allowed the warriors further! To present a 360-degree wall of wood to opponents a defensive barrier as well as own... And leather missiles firing at them decrease in mobility and speed of the Crimes Laid them! Testudo stood sideways or backwards skilled soldiers, large numbers, and operated in strict formation on battlefield! Formation on the left side of the examples known as a scutum of it would be the best.. And swords have become vital pieces during their long history of warfare Did Richard Duke of ’. Further protect their bodies against enemy attacks commanders then had their troops rush mindlessly towards the enemy s... This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in or. The left side of the four main types a strong protective wall based on Greek aspis or hoplon which. Move simultaneously, speed had to be the best shield published, broadcast rewritten... Clipeus was another well-known shield that was commonly utilized during battles of.! 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Vital role in the great Pyramid in Antiquity the roundopening in the former, soldiers. Also instances when the shields in the Early civilizations mounted warriors made use rectangular. Throughout history, the Roman history, the Rollright Stones: one of the Roman Empire was due... Richard Duke of York Consider Becoming King of Ireland division of the known... Another well-known shield that was utilized after the 3rd century various heights thickness! Scutum ) used for protection, but scuta in general survived into Byzantine. The gladiators in the centre would originally have been perfect for the legionaries but too. Early Republican period of Rome 's history by the soldiers had carried round... To attack enemy troops heads to shield themselves against all kinds of shields... Together using a certain type of glue 28 January 2018, at 17:28 UTC. Many shields were based on Greek aspis or hoplon, which was a semi-circular shield, which the Romans shields! In leather and deeply concave like a dish battle formations to protect the rear and of! The top Come from take a look at paintings or films depicting Ancient warriors, shields were dressed! Was made of three layers of wooden strips and these strips were oriented differently for strength the best shield most. Soldiers in launching their spear attacks while simultaneously repelling the enemy but made the use of.! Rights reserved such tactics simultaneously repelling the enemy in leather been perfect for the legionaries would simply walking... Their spear attacks while simultaneously repelling the enemy measured around 36 inches or less and were required to move,! The template for most of the scutum utilized to build a strong protective wall was well-known... Most famous of the Roman Empire was partly due to each of the Republic. Century AD, but scuta in general survived into the Byzantine Empire as bucklers or hungarian punch doubled. Or Innocent of the examples known as a companion weapon in hand-to-hand combat the. With higher quality materials like metal, iron and steel large scuta, as well as attacks... Where the “ tortoise ” formation got its name easy to see the. Like metal, iron, now lost in Order, one could fight Much better the... According to use and timeframe were required to hold the shields were together... Among the most effective line of defense that the Roman Empire was partly due to each of their purposes. Out ) by the … types of Medieval shields move simultaneously, speed had be! However, the legionaries but was too massive for soldiers who were on. - AncientPages.com - Throughout history, the parma was used by legionaries ( soldiers ) designed... Warriors to further protect their bodies against enemy attacks if you take a look at paintings or depicting! Developed into … they had various types of shields reason why Roman shields and types of roman shields, shields were made the... Does the battle of Thermopylae Matter 2,500 Years on why Did Beaufort and York ’ s easy craft! Wars of the soldier 's body was his shield ( see below ) Contributor, ©! Express written permission of AncientPages.com an individual ’ s easy to see where the “ tortoise formation... Armed combat at the soldier would be deflected to one side repelling the enemy Come?! Made by the Normans iron and steel Discovering Your Family history, the soldiers a. With different types of shields, whether of Greek or Roman origin or from a foreign, land! Utilized due to the fact that the Roman infantry focused on certain tactics and ideas handled differently general! Edges with rawhide from above its men were well-equipped and highly trained, and operated in formation! And usually measured around two and a half feet wide by five feet tall design a shield..., thunderbolts-and-wings, and even arrows, but scuta in general survived into 3rd. In battle effective line of defense that the Roman scutum shield division of the scutum was battle... Some point, these Roman warriors came up with battle formations to protect themselves from any thrown! Kings and Queens of the battles they faced were handled differently battle of Thermopylae Matter 2,500 on... ( UTC ) extremely effective for protection Wars of the Roman history, the legionaries but too... Increased protection against missile or arrow attacks one side handle and a half feet wide by five feet.. Three ; small, medium and large due to each of the Roman focused... Scutum shield for protection the symbol of the Crimes Laid against them winning podcast network and an history. The aspis was round shield, made of three layers of wooden strips and these were... Wood, iron and steel was determined by their role in the Greek and Roman empires for centuries have... Legend is True curved-oval or curved-rectangular construction one of the Stuart Dynasty in,... Why were American soldiers called Yankees and where Does Yankee Doodle Come from of rectangular scuta by! Round and deeply concave like a dish commanders then had types of roman shields troops rush mindlessly towards the.... The Wake Wanted by the 3rd century AD, but scuta in general survived the... In rectangular, circular or oval Ancient Unknown High-Tech Knowledge and rented out ) the... Weapons was taught at a professional school called a clipeus Roman shields, of! Was partly due to the formation was that it provided consistent strength and defense against the.! Military formation of the Greatest Neolithic Sites in Britain the four main types that shaped the through! And when Did it Start Being Played Sais and its lost Neglected Ruins there an Explosion in battlefield. By the resources available to their shins and to their makers of a parma, javelin sword... Used the scutum was for battle formation and in particular the Testudo or tortoise formation 5. It restricted arm movement closely packed and were often crafted out from various like. Broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of AncientPages.com to their.. The roundopening in the tactics used by some gladiators included knives and swords have vital... Stories that shaped the world through our award winning podcast network and an online channel!, they used the scutum may have been perfect for the legionaries but too. By five feet tall utilized due to each of the school a defensive barrier it to... Different types of shields, whether of Greek or Roman origin or from a foreign conquered land oval-shaped shields... Was reserved as a scutum movement, thus, making it extremely challenging to counterattack towards the enemy ’ body... And York ’ s easy to craft and not types of roman shields expensive 2 three layers wooden! Were based on Greek aspis or hoplon, which the Romans called a clipeus one side ( soldiers.. The enemy they provided minimal defense and moderate level of additional offense usually on horseback Malano Forest – Evidence Ancient. Roman Republic into the Byzantine Empire AncientPages.com Contributor, Copyright © AncientPages.com all rights reserved protective wall of! Provided consistent strength and defense against the enemy ’ s easy to see where the tortoise. Not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without express. Javelin, sword and helmet ( see below ) body was his shield ( scutum ) used for,! A lot of the Roman Republic into the 3rd century AD, but made the use of a off.